CABEZÓN DE LIEBANA
The current town council of Cabezón de Liébana is formed by the following population entities: Frama, Cambarco, Luriezo, Cahecho, Aniezo, Cabezón de Liébana, Torices, Perrozo, San Andrés, Buyezo, Lamedo, Piasca, Los Cos and Yebas, with their respective districts.
After leaving the town of Ojedo (Cillorigo), we begin the route towards the mountain pass of Piedras Luengas in order to cross the municipality of Cabezón de Liébana. We go by the town of Frama, with the Monastery of Santa María, which was already appointed in January of 1301, located near the district of Lubayo. Nevertheless, from 957 the existence of Frama is already documented. The Bullón river used to divide two population entities in the old days with two churches: Nuestra Señora de Santa María de los Caballeros and the church of San Bartolomé, quoted in some ordinances from 1614, beside the districts of Lubayo, Valverde and Barrio; this last, already disappeared. The Marquis of Santillana, Iñigo López de Mendoza, wrote the following in the "Serranillas": " Dixo cavallero, tiratvos a fuera, desxat la vaquera, passar el otero, cados labradores me piden de Frama entrambos pastores".
The current parochial church was built in 1766 and preserves a Romanesque door with a slightly pointed arch, with Romanesque archivolts. The arch is decorated with some wolf teeth, except for the keystone and a voursoir. It could have belonged to the monastery of Nuestra Señora or the old church of San Bartolomé.
We leave Frama and before arriving to Vieda´s bridge a left-hand side track leads to the old valley of Valdeaniezo, to take us to the village of Cambarco, conserving some typical buildings and where a stone-work hermitage was discovered, dating between the end of the VIII century and beginning of the IX. In Cambarco the old church of San Martín existed, documented in 1145. This church was in the place today occupied by the parochial cemetery, in the district of San Andrés, where some remains are still conserved. In the parochial church and the sacristy there is an old Romanesque arcade, from the XII century, roughly carved in stone, with three Romanesque archivolts supported on a simple plate rail. The altarpiece is from the XVIII century. At the bottom of the valley, and still going uphill along the road, is the village of Aniezo, mentioned in 1145. It was a village of normal and fulling mills, as well as skilled wood artisans. Today, still conserving traditional houses, we can come close to see the Roman bridge, and the fulling mill, in the village centre. In Aniezo there´s also the hermitage of La Encarnación, located in a promontory and where, according to tradition, The Beato de Liébana was born. In the district of Somaniezo the hermitage of San Juan Bautista was built in 1893 and the one of Santa Rosa de Lima. There´s also the typical building on four pillars called "hórreo".
Another two villages in the valley are Luriezo and Cahecho. In Luriezo, we know that the monastery of San Miguel and San Pelayo, used to exist in 1031. The parochial church was built in 1823 and inside its portico there´s a magnificent Cantabro-Roman stella. From Luriezo the road takes us to the village of Cahecho, a marvelous observation area with views to the valley of Liébana, the Cantabrian mountain range and Picos de Europe, where the traveller will enjoy the beauty of a unique landscape. There are documents about the village from 950, and in 1352 it was divided in two parts one dominated by a lord and another one by an abbot. Inside the church there´s a beautiful Renaissance altarpiece, probably from the XVI century, with a Gothic Virgin from the XIV century. In the valley of Valdeaniezo bear hunting was regulated in the old days, so that one person from each family had to go to the hunt and in the case of killing a bear they had to distribute the skin among the different villages, according to an established order.
We return again to the bridge of Vieda and continue a route through the valley arriving at Cabezón de Liébana; but before that, on the other side of the Bullón river, we´ll see the village of Cabariezo. The headquarters of the town council are in the village of Cabezón de Liébana; the entrance to the parochial cemetery is preserved. This is a Romanesque door from the old church of San Emeterio and San Celedonio. The door has a pointed arch, archivolts and carved capitals. Inside the patio a pantheon was the main chapel of the old church, with a pointed arch on the entrance. Outside there are simple beams and a Gothic style double window. The current church was built in 1880. The hermitage of Virgen de Guadalupe was built in 1793 and the hermitage of Carmen, in a baroque style, in 1727. It has a crossed shaped plant and paintings on the vaults from the same date.
From Cabezón de Liébana we go up a road to the left of the main route, to discover the village of Torices, where there used to be two monasteries in the old days: San Martín and Santa Cristina. In the actual parochial church a Romanesque access door stands out, with an arch. Inside there are some interesting altarpieces from the XVIII and XIX centuries and a magnificent baptismal pile. The external bell tower is from the last half of the XII century.
Again we return to the road leading to Piedras Luengas but this time we take a deviation to the right, to go up to the village of Piasca, where, one of the architectural jewels in Liébana is preserved; the Romanesque church of Santa María, a compulsory visit. The first news we have about the existence of Piasca are from 930, and this is when the name twas given to the Jurisdiction of the Wall of Piasca with the populations of Aceñaba, Ubriezo, La Casilla, Tabarniego, Los Cos and Yebas. Near the village there used to be a castle dominating the valley, which was appointed in some documents from the XII century. In Tabarniego the church of San Clemente existed; in Los Cos, the monastery of San Julián, and the villages of Aceñaba and Ubriezo, because they were included in the town council of Piasca, were under an abbey´s regime with the abbot of Sahagún in 1352. There were some villages that disappeared, like Rinde, with the church of San Román, near Aceñaba; in Yebas there are still some remains of the old church of Santa María in the walls of the parochial cemetery.
Now we will continue to discover the villages in the old Valley of Valderrodíes and for this we continue a route towards Piedras Luengas. After arriving to Puente Asnil, next to the road, a deviation on the left take us there. So, we first get to the town of Perrozo, with six very dispersed districts, from where there´s a beautiful panoramic of the eastern massif of Picos de Europa. We´ll also see the church. From the XI century the old monastery of Santa María is documented here, in the same place today occupied by the parochial church. At the church entrance there are two ancient olive trees. The entrance door is very beautiful, Romanesque, and framed by a baystall with a pointed arch decorated with its spiral and two archivolts. The capitals are adorned with curious and original figures. The whole group is Romanesque from the XIII century. Outside one can observe, on the apse wall, carved "canecillos", as well as two windows, one of them double.
Again on the road taking us into the valley of Valderrodíes we arrive to San Andrés, where various shields and large ancient houses are preserved; in San Andrés the town council neighbours used to meet to discuss common ordinances. Near this place there used to be a village called Labandón. In the parochial church, a beautiful Romanesque door with pointed arch on the Epistle wall stands out, with archivolts and decorated capitals. In the apse some "canecillos" are still conserved, with a human head over one of them. Outside, on the sacristy´s wall, there´s a double arcade with a horseshoe shape, of Mozarabic style. Next to the village there used to be a defensive tower.
We conclude this trip to the old valley
of Valderrodíes and to the municipality of Cabezón de
Liébana, visiting the towns of Buyezo and Lamedo. In Buyezo was
the monastery of San Pedro and in Tornes grassland area, the hermitages
of San Martín and San Pastor de Tornes. Lamedo stands out because
it conserves a rural group reflecting popular architecture in Liébana.
In Buyezo and Lamedo there always were big bear hunters and wood artisans.
José Antonio Cires continues today with this beautiful tradition.
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